The physical and psychological effects of football on people after the age of 45

Guidelines for Writing Term Papers I. How to Choose a Topic A. You are encouraged to select a topic (from reading the text, class lectures, or from your own experience) that is of special interest to you. If you have trouble finding a topic that interests you, look ahead to future topics in the text. Be sure to approach your topic as a question that needs to be answered. For instance, “how much does a person’s memory change with age?” (which would be too broad, by the way) Or, “What medical treatments are available for Alzheimer’s?” This should be a research question, that will allow you to describe research studies (very important) B. Next, read the section in the text about your topic. How much information is there in the text addressing your question? Since there is a whole chapter on that topic in your text, this topic is probably too large to handle in a ten-page paper. So you need to make your question more specific. For example, does autobiographical memory decline with age? Since there are only a few paragraphs on this topic in your text, it is probably a good choice for a paper topic. Remember, the text is a general one–the author had to cover a lot of material in one book. If they wrote more than a page on a subject, there are probably whole books on that topic alone. II. Finding References: One place to start researching your topic is the text. Read the section in the text concerning your topic and find the references which are cited in that section at the back of the chapter. Look for these references in the library. If you find one of these to be particularly helpful, you should also obtain that article’s references. Next, conduct a subject search on the databases in the library, especially PsycArticles and EBSCOHost. Check to see if our library has the articles you find via the databases. If the library does not have some of the titles you desire, try Inter-Library Loan. Only go to Inter-Library Loan after you are certain that the library does not possess that title. III. The Proposal for your Paper: You should have selected a topic and started reading possible sources by January 29. At that time, you are required to submit a proposal of your topic: an outline of the main points you expect to cover and two of the reference citations that you have obtained up to that point. Proposals will be returned with comments on possible problems, suggestions for improvement, and hints for more references. The citations should be written in APA style so that I may offer you advice in that arena as well. IV. Expectations for Papers: 1. Each paper must be no less than 10 pages in length, excluding title and reference pages. 2. The paper must be typed, double-spaced, and formatted according to APA-style. 3. The paper should have a brief introduction that defines the topic, a main body which describes the important research (THIS MEANS RESEARCH STUDIES WHERE THE AUTHOR COLLECTED DATA)on the topic in an organized manner, criticisms of the research which point out the relative value of the research, and a conclusion which summarizes and critically evaluates the research you cited. Base your conclusions on the literature cited, not just on your own opinions. 4. The paper should have a reference page on which each article or Book that is cited in the text of the paper is referenced. All works referenced in the text must be on the reference list in alphabetical order by author’s last name. Examples of how to reference journal articles and books are given on the last page of this handout. 5. Your literature search need not be exhaustive; however, it should Be thorough enough to include all major views on the topic. 6. Spelling and Grammar will be graded. Four mistakes = minus one pt. 7. Proofread your paper for errors. 8. Do not plagiarize the work of others. Give credit to all sources from whom you have borrowed ideas. If you use the author’s exact words, you must use quotation marks. When you paraphrase material (that is, put it in your own words), you must acknowledge your source. 9. Use the third person in writing your paper (i.e., do not use I, we, or you). 10. Avoid biased language. When possible, use the plural form of nouns (they, their and remember to change verb tenses appropriately). However, be careful not to force this. When the material calls for singular nouns, use he or she for readability. 11. Only reliable sources (journal articles and books) should be used n your paper. Magazine articles are not usually acceptable as evidence, but may be cited for examples of a phenomenon. 12. In general, there should probably be one or more sources cited per paragraph. V. Suggestions on Style: This term paper should be a review of relevant scientific studies on your topic. If citing an experiment, describe what was done and what was found. The style expected is what is called scientific writing. Scientific writing is meant to inform, not to entertain. Scientific writing is concrete, to the point, and follows a logical progression from sentence to sentence, paragraph to paragraph. 1. Once you have taken notes on your articles and books, construct an outline from them. You should have a thesis sentence which tells the reader what points you are going to cover. 2. Use the “Funnel” technique. This means that the first few sentences of your Introduction are general in scope and introduce the topic. Then, steadily grow more specific, building up a background so that the reader knows why your specific question is important. Finally, (still in the Introduction), state your thesis question. In the conclusion, the funnel will reverse and you will go from the specific (answering your thesis as clearly as possible) to the general (the implications of your answer for the larger topic and perhaps the field). 3. Vary sentence and paragraph length. In general, a paragraph should be longer than a single sentence; however,a paragraph longer than a page of typing is probably too long. 4. Use the active voice (Mark hit John) instead of the passive voice (John was hit by Mark). 5. Try omitting adjectives, adverbs, and prepositional phrases. If the important information is still apparent without these, leave them out. 6. Be consistent in the use of verb tenses. Past tense (e.g., Brown found) or present perfect tense (e.g., Studies have found) are appropriate for a literature review. 7. Provide continuity by linking each part of the paper to some preceding part by the use of transitional words, phrases, or sentences. These include: while, since, therefore, consequently, as a result, because, in addition, moreover, furthermore, similarly, however, conversely, and although. Other options include repeating words or phrases used in previous parts of the paper (e.g., In sum, Moore (1992) was one of the most well-known researchers of his time. {new paragraph} Another well-known researcher was…). 8. Avoid repetition, words, and phrases meant only to lengthen your paper, cliches, and words or phrases which do not fit with the present train of thought. 9. The reference page should be its own page with the word References centered at the top of the page. 10. Have someone else read your paper and make editorial comments (don’t just use Spell-check, even though that helps). If this is not possible, read your paper aloud slowly. In general, if you cannot say something comfortably, it is probably poorly written. Final paper is due (March 26, 2020). Grading Term Papers _______ Proposal. (5 points.) Due January 29. _______ Rough Draft. (5 points.) Due February 25. FINAL PAPER DUE March 25, 2021. Topic. 5 points. _______ Is topic narrow enough? (3 points.) _______ Is topic clearly stated in the Introduction?(2) Content. 55 points. _______ Is the material cited relevant to the question? (5 points) _______ Are differing viewpoints represented? (5 points) _______ Is relevant RESEARCH used to illuminate a larger topic? Describe research studies from psychology journals. (30) _______ Are the conclusions based on cited research?(10) _______ Is the importance of the field or issue made clear? (5 points) Style. 20 points. _______ Title page present and properly formatted? (2) _______ Are the Introduction, body, and conclusion clearly delineated? Is the organization clear? (5) _______ Typed, double-spaced, running head, page numbers?(3) _______ Does the Introduction begin with a general statement and become more specific? Is the conclusion the opposite? (5 points) _______ Grammar and spelling? (5 points) References. 10 points. _______ At least 10 references. (2 points). _______ The majority of these from journals; no more than 2 from a popular source. (1 point). _______ Reference page proper format? (5 points) _______ Citations in the text–do they correspond with those cited on the reference page? (2) Plagiarism is not assigned points; instead, serious plagiarism will result in a zero for the paper. To avoid plagiarism issues, please cite everything that is not your own ideas and put all in your own words (okay, maybe one direct quotebut make sure thats in quotation marks!). For This or a Similar Paper Click Here To Order Now

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