Please, Review the abstract below and provide an assessment of the study by resp

Please,Review the abstract below and provide an assessment of the study by responding to the following questions.1. What is the study design reported by the authors? Was the study design reported by the authors the type of study actually conducted? If not, please explain the differences between the study design reported and the actual design of the study conducted.2. What were the exposure(s) and outcome(s) relations explored in this study?3. Provide definitions for random error and systematic error (i.e., bias) and describe the difference between random and systematic error.4. Provide definitions of confounding and 2 primary types of systematic error or bias. Give examples of confounding and each type of bias. Do not restate the examples provided in your text (i.e. search the Web or refer (and cite) other resources used for other examples).5. Do you believe that confounding or any of these biases could be of concern in this study? Briefly explain.ABSTRACT:INTRODUCTION: There is general concern regarding the possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation emitted from mobile phones. This study aimed to assess the effects of chronic exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted from Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) mobile phones on auditory functions.MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional, randomized, case control study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital. One hundred twelve subjects who were long-term mobile phone users (more than 1 year) and 50 controls who had never used a mobile phone underwent a battery of audiologic investigations including pure-tone audiometry (both speech and high frequency), tympanometry, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brain responses, and middle latency responses. Changes in the various parameters were studied in the mobile phone- and non-mobile phone-using ears of subjects and corresponding ears of the controls to ascertain the effects of electromagnetic exposure.RESULTS: There was no significant difference between users and controls for any of the audiologic parameters. However, trends for audiologic abnormalities were seen within the users. High-frequency loss and absent distortion product otoacoustic emissions were observed with an increase in the duration of mobile phone use, excessive use of mobile phones, and age more than 30 years. Additionally, users with some complaints during mobile phone use demonstrated absent distortion product otoacoustic emissions and abnormalities in auditory brainstem response.CONCLUSION: Long-term and intensive mobile phone use may cause inner ear damage. A large sample size would be required to reach definitive conclusionsFor This or a Similar Paper Click Here To Order Now

Looking for this or a Similar Assignment? Click below to Place your Order

Click Me
Improve Your Grades by Hiring a Top Tutor to Assist you on this or any other task before your deadline elapses